Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Book Compilation By His Holiness Jayapatākā Swami Mahārāja
on 30th December 2020 in Śrīdhāma Māyāpur, India
mūkaṁ karoti vācālaṁ paṅguṁ laṅghayate girim
yat-kṛpā tam ahaṁ vande śrī-guruṁ dīna-tāraṇam
paramānandaṁ mādhavaṁ śrī caitanya iśvaram
hariḥ oṁ tat sat
Introduction: Today we are continuing with the compilation of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya book, today’s chapter entitled:
Explanation of Ātmārāma Verse by Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya and Lord Caitanya
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.184
kṛṣṇa-bhakti jīvera parama-puruṣārtha :—
prabhu kahe,—bhaṭṭācārya, nā kara vismaya
bhagavāne bhakti—parama-puruṣārtha haya
Translation: Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then told him, “Do not be astonished. Actually, devotional service unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the highest perfection of human activity.
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.80
prabhura sārvabhauma-sannidhāne bhāgavata-śravaṇera abhilāṣa-līlā—
prabhu bale,—“mora eka āche manoratha
tomāra mukhete śunibāṅa bhāgavata
Jayapatākā Swami: Lord Caitanya said, “I have one desire. I would like to hear from your mouth the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam.
Purport by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura: The word śunibāṅa means “I will hear.”
Another reading for manoratha (“desire”) is nivedana (“request”).
Another reading for śunibāṅa bhāgavata (“I will hear Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam”) is bhāgavatera śravaṇa (“hearing of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam”).
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.81
yateka saṁśaya citte āchaye āmāra
tomā’-bai ghucāite hena nāhi āra”
Jayapatākā Swami: “In my mind I have some doubts, except for You no one is able to remove these doubts.”
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.82
sārvabhauma bale,—“tumi sakala vidyāya
parama pravīṇa, āmi jāni sarvathāya
Jayapatākā Swami: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya said, “You are supremely expert in all fields of knowledge I know this very well.
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.83
kon bhāgavata-artha nā jāna’ vā tumi
tomāre vā kona-rūpe prabodhiba āmi
Jayapatākā Swami: “Is there any meaning of Śrīmad Bhāgavatam that You do not know? So, How, can I teach You?
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.84
tathāpiha anyo’nye bhaktira vicāra
Jayapatākā Swami: “Nonetheless, it is the nature of pious persons to discuss devotional service among themselves.
Purport by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura: The phrase anyo’nye means “between one another.”
In the Bhagavad–gītā (10.9) it is stated:
kathayantaś ca māṁ nityaṁ
tuṣyanti ca ramanti ca
“The thoughts of My pure devotees’ dwell in Me, their lives are fully devoted to My service, and they derive great satisfaction and bliss from always enlightening one another and conversing about Me.”
In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.3.30) it is stated:
mitho ratir mithas tuṣṭir
nivṛttir mitha ātmanaḥ
“One should learn how to associate with the devotees of the Lord by gathering with them to chant the glories of the Lord. This process is most purifying. As devotees thus develop their loving friendship, they feel mutual happiness and satisfaction. And by thus encouraging one another they are able to give up material sense gratification, which is the cause of all suffering.”
Jayapatākā Swami: So, devotees like to associate with each other to discuss about Lord Kṛṣṇa and this discussion gives them great spiritual satisfaction. But material sense gratification gives one momentary happiness and then suffering. Whereas the spiritual bliss is only bliss, no suffering.
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.85
bala dekhi sandeha tomāra kon sthāne
āche? tāhā yathā-śakti kariba vākhāne”
Jayapatākā Swami: “Tell me, what verse You have doubt about? I will try to explain it to the best of my ability.”
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.86
“ātmārāma’ śloka sambandhe prabhura praśna—
tabe śrī-vaikuṇṭha-nātha īṣat hāsiyā
balilena eka śloka aṣṭa-ākhariyā
Jayapatākā Swami: Lord Caitanya then mentioned the “ātmārāma verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and in this way the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha smiled happily and mentioned this verse from the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.87
tathāhi (bhāg 1.7.10)—
ātmārāmāś ca munayo
nirgranthā apy urukrame
kurvanty ahaitukīṁ bhaktim
Translation: “All different varieties of ātmārāmas [those who take pleasure in ātmā, or spirit self], especially those established on the path of self-realization, though freed from all kinds of material bondage, desire to render unalloyed devotional service unto the Personality of Godhead. This means that the Lord possesses transcendental qualities and therefore can attract everyone, including liberated souls.”
Jayapatākā Swami: So this is the “ātmārāma verse and now Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya and Lord Caitanya will discuss it.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.185
divyasūrigaṇao kṛṣṇapade ākṛṣṭa :—
‘ātmārāma’ paryanta kare īśvara bhajana
aiche acintya bhagavānera guṇa-gaṇa
Translation: “Even the self-satisfied sages perform devotional service to the Supreme Lord. Such are the transcendental qualities of the Lord. They are full of inconceivable spiritual potency.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.186
ātmārāmāś ca munayo
nirgranthā apy urukrame
kurvanty ahaitukīṁ bhaktim
Translation: “Those who are self-satisfied and unattracted by external material desires are also attracted to the loving service of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, whose qualities are transcendental and whose activities are wonderful. Hari, the Personality of Godhead, is called Kṛṣṇa because He has such transcendentally attractive features.’”
Purport: This is the famous ātmārāma verse (SB 1.7.10).
So this point that even liberated souls are attracted to the devotional service for Lord Kṛṣṇa proves that Kṛṣṇa is transcendental and that He is attracted to everyone including liberated souls.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.187
śloka-vyākhyā śunite sārvabhaumera icchā :—
śuni’ bhaṭṭācārya kahe,—’śuna, mahāśaya
ei ślokera artha śunite vāñchā haya’
Translation: After hearing the ātmārāma verse, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya addressed Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, “My dear Sir, please explain this verse. I have a great desire to hear Your explanation of it.”
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.188
prabhura anurodhe sārvabhaumera vyākhyā-mukhe pāṇḍitya-prakāśa :—
prabhu kahe,—’tumi ki artha kara, tāhā āge śuni’
pāche āmi kariba artha, yebā kichu jāni’
Translation: The Lord replied, “First let Me hear your explanation. After that, I shall try to explain what little I know.”
Jayapatākā Swami: So, we will hear what Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya has to say and then what little Lord Caitanya will explain.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.189
śuni’ bhaṭṭācārya śloka karila vyākhyāna
tarka-śāstra-mata uṭhāya vividha vidhāna
Translation: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya then began to explain the ātmārāma verse, and according to the principles of logic, he put forward various propositions.
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.88
sarasvatīpatira sannidhāne sārvabhaumera vyākhyā—
sarasvatī-pati gauracandrera agrete
kṛpāya lāgilā sārvabhauma vākhānite
Jayapatākā Swami: So Lord Gauracandra, the husband of Sarasvatī, the goddess of learning, in front of Him, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya by Lord Caitanya mercy, began to explain this verse.
Purport by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura: Śrī Vāgdevī (Sarasvatī, the goddess of speech) is mentioned in the Vājasaneya-saṁhitā, quoted in the Govinda-bhāṣya (3.3.40), as follows: śrīś ca te lakṣmīś ca patnyau—“O Supreme Personality of Godhead, Śrī and Lakṣmī are Your wives.”
In the Nārada-pañcarātra (2.3.64) it is stated:
sarasvatī bhāratī ca
bhāratī brahma-patnī ca
“By the order of Lord Hari, Sarasvatī devī accepted two forms. In one form she was Sarasvatī, the perfect mystic yogini, and in another form she was Bhāratī. Bhāratī became the wife of Brahmā, and Sarasvatī became the wife of Viṣṇu.”
Jayapatākā Swami: So we already heard the pastime of Keśava Kāśmīrī, who was blessed by Sarasvatī. But then he was defeated by Nimāi Paṇḍita and when he prayed to Sarasvatī, “why did you allow me to be defeated by the youthful Paṇḍita? Then she said, “ He is my Husband, I cannot help you.”
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.89
sārvabhauma balena,—“ślokārtha ei satya
kṛṣṇa-pade bhakti se sabāra mūla tattva
Jayapatākā Swami: Sārvabhauma said, “The true meaning of this verse is that devotional service to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa is the original truth.”
Purport by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura: The actual purport of the ātmārāma verse is that Kṛṣṇa, the object of worship, is the original truth of all. Those persons who are completely liberated from all forms of material bondage are qualified to achieve devotional service to Kṛṣṇa. The qualities of Kṛṣṇa are very powerful. Those people who desire material enjoyment not related to Kṛṣṇa are conditioned souls averse to the worship of Kṛṣṇa.
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.90-91
sarva-kāla paripūrṇa haya ye ye jana
antare bāhire yāra nāhika bandhana
Jayapatākā Swami: “Those people who are complete in themselves at all times internally and externally they have no bondage.
evam-vidha mukta saba kare kṛṣṇa-bhakti
hena kṛṣṇa-guṇera svabhāva mahā-śakti
Jayapatākā Swami: Such liberated personalities all render devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa. Such is the influence of the great power of Kṛṣṇa’s transcendental qualities.
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.92
hena kṛṣṇa-guṇa-nāma mukta sabe gāya
ithe anādara yāra, sei nāśa yāya”
Jayapatākā Swami: “Liberated souls sing the glories of Kṛṣṇa’s transcendental qualities and holy names, while those who are disrespectful to Them, they are destroyed.”
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.93
ei mata nānā mata pakṣa tolāiyā
vyākhyā kare sārvabhauma āviṣṭa haiyā
Jayapatākā Swami: In this way Śrī Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya put together, various arguments as explanations with the full concentration.
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.94
sārvabhaumera trayodaśa prakāra artha—
trayodaśa-prakāra ślokārtha vākhāniyāra
hilena “āra śakti nāhika” baliyā
Jayapatākā Swami: After Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya explained the verse, He gave explanation in thirteen different ways, and then he stopped and said, “I have no power speak further.”
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.190
sārvabhaumera yathā-śakti naya prakāra vyākhyā —
nava-vidha artha kaila śāstra-mata lañā
śuni’ prabhu kahe kichu īṣat hāsiyā
Translation: The Bhaṭṭācārya explained the ātmārāma verse in nine different ways on the basis of scripture. After hearing his explanation, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, smiling a little, began to speak.
Purport: The ātmārāma verse was discussed at Naimiṣāraṇya at a meeting of many great sages, headed by Śaunaka Ṛṣi. They questioned Śrīla Sūta Gosvāmī, who presided at the meeting, about why Śrīla Śukadeva Gosvāmī, a paramahaṁsa already in the transcendental position, was attracted to a discussion of the qualities of Kṛṣṇa. In other words, they wanted to know why Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī engaged in the study of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
Jayapatākā Swami: Generally, one thinks that if you are liberated then you are completely self-satisfied. But even these “ātmārāmas or self-satisfied persons like to discuss about Lord Kṛṣṇa because Kṛṣṇa is transcendental, so that He is also attracted to the liberated people. So that the liberated persons are able to appreciate Kṛṣṇa more. So this proves that Kṛṣṇa is transcendental to the impersonal Brahman. Even if one has the realization of impersonal Brahman he is still attracted to Kṛṣṇa’s transcendental qualities
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.191
prabhura mānada-dharma-sārvabhaumake praśaṁsā :—
‘bhaṭṭācārya’, jāni—tumi sākṣāt bṛhaspati
śāstra-vyākhyā karite aiche kāro nāhi śakti
Translation: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “My dear Bhaṭṭācārya, you are exactly like Bṛhaspati, the priest of the heavenly kingdom. Indeed, no one within this world has the power to explain the scriptures in such a way.
Jayapatākā Swami: Actually, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya is an avatāra of Bṛhaspati, he came down to this world simply to participate in the pastimes of Lord Caitanya. That is why Lord Caitanya was seeking him in Jagannātha Purī. As Supersoul He knows each one’s desire, So He wanted to fulfill the desire of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya to teach Him and to be in His pastimes and then He gave him special mercy.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.192
kintu tumi artha kaile pāṇḍitya-pratibhāya
ihā va-i ślokera āche āro abhiprāya
Translation: “My dear Bhaṭṭācārya, you have certainly explained this verse by the prowess of your vast learning, but you should know that, besides this scholarly explanation, there is another purport to this verse.”
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.95
īṣat hāsiyā gauracandra prabhu kaya
“yata vākhānilā tumi, saba satya haya
Jayapatākā Swami: Lord Gauracandra he slightly smiled and said, “Whatever you have explained is certainly true.
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.96
prabhura ukta ślokera asaṁkhya prakāra guḍha vyākhyā—
ebe śuna āmi kichu kariye vyākhyāna
bujha dekhi vicāriyāhaya ki pramāṇa”
Jayapatākā Swami: “Now hear and decide whether My explanations are authorized.”
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.193
bhaṭṭācāryera prārthanāya prabhura svatantra vyākhyāna :—
bhaṭṭācāryera prārthanāte prabhu vyākhyā kaila
tāṅra nava artha-madhye eka nā chuṅila
Translation: Upon the request of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu began to explain the verse, without touching upon the nine explanations given by the Bhaṭṭācārya.
Jayapataka Swami: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya had used all his vast learning and came up with nine explanation of the verse, and then he said he has no power to explain further. Then Lord Caitanya after asking permission, he started to explain the verse and did not touch any of the nine explanations of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya. That means He gave new explanations.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.194
prabhura aṣṭādaśa prakāra vyākhyā :—
ātmārāmāś ca-śloke ’ekādaśa’ pada haya
pṛthak pṛthak kaila padera artha niścaya
Translation: There are eleven words in the ātmārāma verse, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu explained each word, one after the other.
Purport: The words in the ātmārāma verse are ātmārāmāḥ, ca, munayaḥ, nirgranthāḥ, api, urukrame, kurvanti, ahaitukīm, bhaktim, ittham-bhūta-guṇaḥ and hariḥ.
Jayapatākā Swami: Eleven words!
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.195
tat-tat-pada-prādhānye ’ātmārāma’ milāñā
aṣṭādaśa artha kaila abhiprāya lañā
Translation: Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu took each word specifically and combined it with the word “ātmārāma.” He thus explained the word “ātmārāma” in eighteen different ways.
Jayapataka Swami: That means He explained in 18 ways and Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya explained in 9 ways that is 27 total. But Lord Caitanya He didn’t touch the nine ways of Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.196
bhagavad-guṇa-śakti acintyā o ātmārāmākarṣiṇī :—
bhagavān, tāṅra śakti, tāṅra guṇa-gaṇa
acintya prabhāva tinera nā yāya kathana
Translation: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “The Supreme Personality of Godhead, His different potencies and His transcendental qualities all have inconceivable prowess. It is not possible to explain them fully.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.197
anya yata sādhya-sādhana kari’ ācchādana
ei tine hare siddha-sādhakera mana
Translation: “These three items attract the mind of a perfect student engaged in spiritual activities and overcome all other processes of spiritual activity.”
Purport: Spiritual activities other than bhakti-yoga are divided into three categories—speculative activity conducted by the jñāna-sampradāya (learned scholars), fruitive activity conducted by the general populace according to Vedic regulations, and the activities of transcendentalists not engaged in devotional service. There are many different branches of these categories, but the Supreme Personality of Godhead, by His inconceivable potencies and transcendental qualities, attracts the mind of the student engaged in the activities of karma, jñāna, yoga and so forth. The Supreme Lord is full of inconceivable potencies, which are related to His person, His energies and His transcendental qualities. All of these are very attractive to the serious student. Consequently, the Lord is known as Kṛṣṇa, the all-attractive.
Jayapatākā Swami: Why the Vedas name the Supreme Personality of Godhead by different names, that in Sanskrit they have different meaning. The name Kṛṣṇa means ‘all attractive’ the reservoir of all pleasure.’ So who else but the Supreme Personality of Godhead is attractive to everyone? And who is the source of everyone’s happiness?The
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.198
sanakādi-śukadeva tāhāte pramāṇa
ei-mata nānā artha karena vyākhyāna
Translation: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu explained the meaning of the verse by giving evidence concerning Śukadeva Gosvāmī and the four ṛṣis Sanaka, Sanātana, Sanandana and Sanat-kumāra. Thus, the Lord gave various meanings and explanations.
Purport: That Kṛṣṇa is all-attractive is verified by the activities of the four ṛṣis and Śukadeva Gosvāmī. All of them were liberated persons, yet they were attracted by the qualities and pastimes of the Lord. It is therefore said, muktā api līlayā vigrahaṁ kṛtvā bhagavantaṁ bhajante: “Even liberated persons are attracted by the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa and thus engage in devotional service.” (Cc. Madhya 24.112) From the very beginning of their lives, Śukadeva Gosvāmī and the four Kumāras, known as catuḥ-sana, were liberated and self-realized on the Brahman platform. Nonetheless, they were attracted by the qualities of Kṛṣṇa, and they engaged in His service. The four Kumāras were attracted by the aroma of the flowers offered at the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, and in this way they became devotees. Śukadeva Gosvāmī heard Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam by the mercy of his father, Vyāsadeva, and he was consequently attracted to Kṛṣṇa and became a great devotee. The conclusion is that the transcendental bliss experienced in the service of the Lord must be superior to brahmānanda, the bliss derived from realizing the impersonal Brahman.
Jayapatākā Swami: The four Kumaras who are known as catuḥ-sana, they bowed down to Lord Nārāyaṇa, Lord Visnu, in Viṣṇuloka and they smelled the Tulasī flowers offered to Viṣṇu’s lotus feet and they started to experience transcendental ecstasy, quivering in the body, hairs standing on end, tears flowing from their eyes, and then they realized that they were experiencing ecstasy much greater than the bliss of impersonal Brahman
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.97
takhane vismita sārvabhauma mahāśaya
“āro artha narera śaktite kabhu naya!”
Jayapatākā Swami: At that time Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya Mahāśaya became amazed and became struck with wonder. He thought, “the power of the human being to give further explanations was beyond their ability!”
Caitanya-Bhāgavata Antya-khaṇḍa 3.98
āpanāra artha prabhu āpane vākhāne
yāhā keha kona kalpe uddeśa nā jāne
Jayapatākā Swami: Then Lord Caitanya, He explained the meaning in His own manner, which no one at any time could conceive of.
Purport by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura: Gaurasundara is directly Kṛṣṇacandra, therefore only He knows the actual purport of this verse spoken by Kṛṣṇa. Gaurasundara began to personally explain this verse in many different ways without touching the thirteen explanations given by Sārvabhauma. No living entity other than Kṛṣṇa could ever conceive of such explanations.
Jayapatākā Swami: So when Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya who was a great scholar of the Vedas and logic, heard the unlimited explanations of Lord Caitanya which even did not touch his explanation, then he was convinced that Lord Caitanya was actually Kṛṣṇa Himself.
Since Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya was a great scholar, he could be convinced of Lord Caitanya’s position by Him demonstrating, exhibiting scholarship beyond His imagination. Different personalities realize the Lord by different actions. So in this way, Lord Caitanya showed His potency to Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, first by melting his heart and then showing him His vast learning. In various ways He convinced Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya about the transcendental position of Supreme Personality of Godhead of Kṛṣṇa and also His own position.
Thus ends the chapter entitled, Explanation of Ātmārāma Verse by Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya and Lord Caitanya.
Transcribed and Verified by JPS Archives team, 30th December 2020