Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Book Compilation
By His Holiness Jayapatākā Swami Mahārāja on 6th January 2021 in
Śrīdhāma Māyāpur, India
mūkaṁ karoti vācālaṁ paṅguṁ laṅghayate girim
yat-kṛpā tam ahaṁ vande śrī-guruṁ dīna-tāraṇam
paramānandaṁ mādhavaṁ śrī caitanya iśvaram
hariḥ oṁ tat sat
Introduction: Today we are continuing with the compilation of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya book, today’s chapter entitled is:
Bhakti-pade in Place of Mukti-pade
Caitanya Carita Mahā Kāvya 12.89
śrī-gauracandrasya kṛpā tu saiṣā
vācā kathaṁ tat-pratisaṅga-leśāt
anyaiva rītiḥ khalu cetasaḥ syād
anyac ca janmānyad ivāpy adṛṣṭam
Translation: The mercy of Gauracandra received from even a moment’s association cannot be described by words. One’s behavior changes. One’s birth changes. One’s karma changes.
Jayapatākā Swami: Gaurāṅga! This gives the glories of a moment of Lord Caitanya association. Śrīla Prabhupāda was saying by anyone touching one of his books, by reading one verse, by reading one word, they may also become completely changed. So we see that Lord Caitanya is present in Śrīla Prabhupāda books, and how Lord Caitanya’s association has liberated Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya. How His association even today is liberating countless people. By hearing about His wonderful qualities, and by chanting His holy names, by hearing about His pastimes, by associating with His devotees. So this unlimited mercy is still present today. Actually my doctors say I should not give any class but I am addicted to Caitanya-līlā! Hari bol!
Caitanya Carita Mahā Kāvya 12.90
sa vipramukhyaḥ prabhupāda-saṅgāt
mokṣasya nāmāpi na karṇa-vartma
nayaty asau gaura-vibhoḥ kṛpaiṣā
Translation: The best of brāhmaṇas was a follower of impersonalism (ādhyātma), but by the association of the feet of the Lord, he would not even hear the word “liberation.” Such is the mercy of Gaurāṅga.
Jayapatākā Swami: Gaurāṅga!
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.259
prabhura nikaṭa sārvabhauma karttaka pāṭhāntarapūrvaka brahmastuti-śloka paṭhana :—
eka-dina sārvabhauma prabhu-āge āilā
namaskāra kari’ śloka paḍite lāgilā
Translation: One day Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya came before Caitanya Mahāprabhu and, after offering obeisances, began to recite a verse.
Caitanya Carita Mahā Kāvya 12.91
kadācid eṣa prabhu-pūrvatas tu
nipaṭhya tan-mukti-pade sa dāya-bhāg
ity atra bhaktīti paṭhan nananda
Translation: One time, when the opportunity arose, in front of the Lord, Sārvabhauma recited a verse from Bhāgavatam and instead of mukti–pade said bhakti–pade in bliss.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.260
bhāgavatera ’brahma-stave’ra śloka paḍilā
śloka-śeṣe dui akṣara-pāṭha phirāilā
Translation: He began to quote one of Lord Brahmā’s prayers from Śrīmad–Bhāgavatam, but he changed two syllables at the end of the verse.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.261
tat te ’nukampāṁ su-samīkṣamāṇo
bhuñjāna evātma-kṛtaṁ vipākam
hṛd-vāg-vapurbhir vidadhan namas te
jīveta yo bhakti-pade sa dāya-bhāk
Translation: The Bhaṭṭācārya recited, “‘One who seeks Your compassion and thus tolerates all kinds of adverse conditions due to the karma of his past deeds, who engages always in Your devotional service with his mind, words and body, and who always offers obeisances unto You is certainly a bona fide candidate for becoming Your unalloyed devotee.’”
Purport: When reciting this verse from Śrīmad–Bhāgavatam (10.14.8), Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya changed the original reading from mukti–pade to bhakti–pade. Mukti means liberation and merging into the impersonal Brahman effulgence. Bhakti means rendering transcendental service unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Because of having developed pure devotional service, the Bhaṭṭācārya did not like the word mukti–pade, which refers to the impersonal Brahman feature of the Lord. However, he was not authorized to change a word in Śrīmad–Bhāgavatam, as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu will explain. Although the Bhaṭṭācārya changed the word in his devotional ecstasy, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu did not approve of it.
Jayapatākā Swami: Changing a word of the scripture is the right of the Supreme Personality of Godhead or His incarnation.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.262
prabhukarttṛka bhāgavata-pāṭhera samarthana o saṁrakṣaṇa :—
prabhu kahe, ’mukti-pade’—ihā pāṭha haya
’bhakti-pade’ kene paḍa, ki tomāra āśaya
Translation: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu immediately pointed out, “In that verse the word is ‘mukti–pade,’ but you have changed it to ’bhakti–pade.’ What is your intention?”
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.263
bhaṭṭācāryera muktira parivartte bhakti-pāṭha-rakṣāra icchā :—
bhaṭṭācārya kahe,—’bhakti’-sama nahe mukti-phala
bhagavad-bhakti-vimukhera haya daṇḍa kevala
Translation: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya replied, “The awakening of pure love of Godhead, which is the result of devotional service, far surpasses liberation from material bondage. For those averse to devotional service, merging into the Brahman effulgence is a kind of punishment.”
Purport: In the Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa it is said:
siddha-lokas tu tamasaḥ
pāre yatra vasanti hi
siddhā brahma-sukhe magnā
daityāś ca hariṇā hatāḥ
“In Siddhaloka [Brahmaloka] there live two kinds of living entities—those who are killed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead due to their having been demons in their previous lives and those who are very fond of enjoying the impersonal effulgence of the Lord.” The word tamasaḥ means “the coverings of the universe.” Layers of material elements cover the universe, and outside these coverings is the impersonal Brahman effulgence. If one is destined to remain in the Lord’s impersonal effulgence, he misses the opportunity to render service to the Personality of Godhead. Therefore, devotees consider remaining in the impersonal Brahman effulgence a kind of punishment. Sometimes devotees think of merging into the Brahman effulgence, and consequently they are promoted to Siddhaloka. Because of their impersonal understanding, they are actually punished. Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya continues to explain the distinction between mukti–pada and bhakti–pada in the following verses.
Jayapatākā Swami: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya has understood now that far better than mukti is bhakti. In the four puruṣārthas – dharma, artha, kāma, mokṣa, moksa is liberation from the material bondage. If one merges into the effulgence of the Brahman, it is called sāyujya-mukti. The devotees consider that, a type of punishment. They want to be engaged in the service of the Lord. So now, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya realized this. So he changed the verse from mukti-pada to bhakti-pada. Let’s see if Lord Caitanya approves that.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.264–265
pāṣaṇḍa, māyāvādī o viṣṇuvidveṣī daityagaṇera sāyujya-mukti:—
kṛṣṇera vigraha yei satya nāhi mane
yei nindā-yuddhādika kare tāṅra sane
sei duira daṇḍa haya—’brahma-sāyujya-mukti’
tāra mukti phala nahe, yei kare bhakti
Translation: The Bhaṭṭācārya continued, “The impersonalists, who do not accept the transcendental form of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and the demons, who are always engaged in blaspheming and fighting with Him, are punished by being merged into the Brahman effulgence. But that does not happen to the person engaged in the devotional service of the Lord.
Jayapatākā Swami: The devotee of the Lord is engaged mainly in one of the five primary rasas, Śānta, dāsya, neutral, servitude, sākhya – friendship, vātsalya – parenthood mādhurya – conjugal.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.266
pañcavidha mukti :—
yadyapi se mukti haya pañca-parakāra
Translation: “There are five kinds of liberation: sālokya, sāmīpya, sārūpya, sārṣṭi and sāyujya.
Purport: Sālokya means that after material liberation one is promoted to the planet where the Supreme Personality of Godhead resides, sāmīpya means remaining an associate of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, sārūpya means attaining a four-handed form exactly like that of the Lord, sārṣṭi means attaining opulences like those of the Supreme Lord, and sāyujya means merging into the Brahman effulgence of the Lord. These are the five types of liberation.
Jayapatākā Swami: So the pure devotees of the Lord never accept the sāyujya-mukti, the merging into the Brahman effulgence of the Lord. They accept the other types of liberation if it includes devotional service.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.267
sāyujya vyatīta mukti-catuṣṭaya bhaktira ānuṣaṅgika :—
‘sālokyādi’ cāri yadi haya sevā-dvāra
tabu kadācit bhakta kare aṅgīkāra
Translation: “If there is a chance to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead, a pure devotee sometimes accepts the sālokya, sārūpya, sāmīpya or sārṣṭi forms of liberation, but never sāyujya.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.268
naraka-sadṛśa sāyujya ‘bhaktivināśaka’ baliyā sarvathā parityājya :
‘sāyujya’ śunite bhaktera haya ghṛṇā-bhaya
naraka vāñchaye, tabu sāyujya nā laya
Translation: “A pure devotee does not like even to hear about sāyujya–mukti, which inspires him with fear and hatred. Indeed, the pure devotee would rather go to hell than merge into the effulgence of the Lord.”
Purport: Śrīla Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī has sung, kaivalyaṁ narakāyate. The impersonalist’s conception of becoming one with the effulgence of the Lord is exactly like hell. Therefore, of the five types of liberation, the first four (sālokya, sāmīpya, sārūpya and sārṣṭi) are not so undesirable because they can be avenues of service to the Lord. Nonetheless, a pure devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa rejects even these types of liberation; he aspires only to serve Kṛṣṇa birth after birth. He is not very interested in stopping the repetition of birth, for he simply desires to serve the Lord, even in hellish circumstances. Consequently, the pure devotee hates and fears sāyujya–mukti, merging into the effulgence of the Lord. This merging is due to an offense committed against the transcendental loving service of the Lord, and therefore it is not at all desirable for a pure devotee.
Jayapatākā Swami: So, the point that His Divine Grace A.C Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda is making here is that the devotee wants to serve the Lord. Any form of liberation which doesn’t give any service to the Lord is not very desirable to the devotee. Since there is never any opportunity to serve the Lord in the sāyujya-mukti, therefore it is completely out of the question. In the Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta the devotee of the Lord, he started to merge into the Brahman effulgence, he called out quickly Govinda! Immediately he was transferred to the spiritual planets. The Māyāvādīs are very interested in mukti, but the devotees of the Lord are only interested in service.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.269
dvividha sāyujya :—
brahme, īśvare sāyujya dui ta’ prakāra
brahma-sāyujya haite īśvara-sāyujya dhikkāra
Translation: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya continued, “There are two kinds of sāyujya–mukti: merging into the Brahman effulgence and merging into the personal body of the Lord. Merging into the Lord’s body is even more abominable than merging into His effulgence.”
Purport: According to the opinion of the Māyāvādī Vedāntists, the living entity’s ultimate success is to merge into the impersonal Brahman. The impersonal Brahman, or bodily effulgence of the Supreme Lord, is known as Brahmaloka or Siddhaloka. According to the Brahma–saṁhitā (5.40), yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad–aṇḍa–koṭi: the material universes are generated from the bodily rays of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Yogīs who follow the principles of Patañjali accept the personality of the Absolute Truth, but they want to merge into the transcendental body of the Supreme Lord. That is their desire. Being the greatest authority, the Supreme Lord can easily allow many millions of living entities to merge into His body. The origin of everything is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Bhagavān, and His bodily effulgence is known as the brahma–jyoti, Brahmaloka or Siddhaloka. Thus Brahmaloka or Siddhaloka is a place where many spark-like living entities, parts and parcels of the Supreme Lord, are assembled. Because these living entities do not wish to keep their individual existences, they are combined and allowed to remain in Brahmaloka like so many atomic particles of sunshine emanating from the sun.
The word siddha is very significant. Siddha refers to one who has realized the Brahman effulgence and who has complete knowledge that the living entity is not a material atom but a spiritual spark. This understanding is described in the Bhagavad–gītā (18.54) as brahma–bhūta. In the conditioned state, the living entity is known as jīva–bhūta, or “the living force within matter.” Brahma–bhūta living entities are allowed to stay in Brahmaloka or Siddhaloka, but unfortunately, they sometimes again fall into the material world because they are not engaged in devotional service. This is supported by the verse in Śrīmad–Bhāgavatam beginning ye ’nye ’ravindākṣa. (SB 10.2.32) These semiliberated souls falsely claim to be liberated, but unless one engages in devotional service to the Lord, he is still materially contaminated. Therefore, these living entities have been described as vimukta–māninaḥ, meaning that they falsely consider themselves liberated although their intelligence is not yet purified. Although these living entities undergo severe austerities to rise to the platform of Siddhaloka, they cannot remain there perpetually, for they are bereft of ānanda (bliss). Even though these living entities attain the brahma–bhūta stage and realize the Supreme Personality of Godhead through His bodily effulgence, they nonetheless fall down due to neglecting the Lord’s service. They do not properly utilize whatever little knowledge they have of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Not attaining ānanda, or bliss, they come down to the material world to enjoy. This is certainly a falldown for one who is actually liberated. The bhaktas consider such a falldown equal to achieving a place in hell.
The followers of the Patañjali yoga system actually want to merge into the body of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This indicates that they do not want to engage in His service despite their knowledge of Him, and thus their position is even more abominable than that of those who want to merge into the Lord’s effulgence. These yogīs meditate on the four-handed Viṣṇu form of the Lord in order to merge into His body. The Patañjali system describes the form of the Lord as kleśa–karma–vipākāśayair aparāmṛṣṭaḥ puruṣa–viśeṣa īśvaraḥ: “The Supreme Personality of Godhead is a person who does not partake of a miserable material life.” The yogīs accept the eternity of the Supreme Person in one of their mantras—sa pūrveṣām api guruḥ kālānavacchedāt: “Such a person is always supreme and is not influenced by the element of time.” The followers of the Patañjali system therefore accept the eternity of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, yet, according to them, puruṣārtha-śūnyānāṁ pratiprasavaḥ kaivalyaṁ svarūpa–pratiṣṭhā vā citi–śaktir iti. They believe that in the perfectional stage, the conception of puruṣa is vanquished. According to their description, citi–śaktir iti. They believe that when one becomes perfect, he cannot remain a person. This yoga system is therefore abominable because its final conception is impersonal. In the beginning, these yogīs accept the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but they ultimately give up this idea in order to become impersonal. They are most unfortunate because although they have a personal conception of the Absolute Truth, they neglect to render devotional service to the Lord and thus fall down again into the material world. As mentioned above, this idea is supported by Śrīmad–Bhāgavatam 10.2.32: āruhya kṛcchreṇa paraṁ padaṁ tataḥ patanty adho ’nādṛta-yuṣmad-aṅghrayaḥ. Due to neglecting the lotus feet of the Lord, these yogīs again fall down into the material existence (patanty adhaḥ). Consequently, this path of yoga is more abominable than the impersonalists’ path. This conclusion is also supported by Lord Kapiladeva in the following verse from Śrīmad–Bhāgavatam (3.29.13).
Jayapatākā Swami: Here Śrīla Prabhupāda has explained in very great detail the difference between jnana-yoga and aṣṭāṅga-yoga. Patañjali who is the principal exponent of aṣṭāṅga-yoga or mystic yoga system, his ultimate instruction is that one can merge in the body of Lord Nārāyaṇa. Instead of graduating into bhakti-yoga, he falls down to a kind of impersonal path or jñana-yoga. But he wants to merge in the Personality of Godhead, its most abominable.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.270
sevyera niṣkāma-sevā vyatīta sevakera kona mukti kāmya nahe :—
sārūpyaikatvam apy uta
dīyamānaṁ na gṛhṇanti
vinā mat-sevanaṁ janāḥ
Translation: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya concluded, “Even though he is offered all kinds of liberation, the pure devotee does not accept them. He is fully satisfied engaging in the service of the Lord.’”
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.271
prabhukarttṛka muktipade’ra vyākhyā :—
prabhu kahe,—’mukti-pade’ra āra artha haya
‘mukti-pada’-śabde ’sākṣāt īśvara’ kahaya
Translation: Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “The word ‘mukti–pade’ has another meaning. ‘Mukti–pada’ directly refers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.272
mukti pade yāṅra, sei ’mukti-pada’ haya
kimvā navama padārtha ’muktira’ samāśraya
Translation: All kinds of liberation exist under the feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; therefore, He is known as mukti-pada. According to another meaning, mukti is the ninth subject, and the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the shelter of liberation.
Purport: Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is also known as Mukunda, or He who gives transcendental bliss by offering all kinds of mukti. Śrīmad–Bhāgavatam is divided into twelve cantos, and in the Ninth Canto different kinds of mukti are described. But the Tenth Canto is the actual center of all discussions of mukti because the Personality of Godhead Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who is the tenth subject discussed in Śrīmad–Bhāgavatam, is the exclusive subject of the Tenth Canto. Since all types of muktis reside at the lotus feet of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, He may be called mukti–pada.
Jayapatākā Swami: So, Lord Caitanya is instructing Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya how mukti-pada is also a name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Therefore, it is alright to use that word.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.273
dui-arthe ’kṛṣṇa’ kahi, kene pāṭha Phiri
sārvabhauma kahe,—o-pāṭha kahite nā pāri
Translation: “Since I can understand Kṛṣṇa according to these two meanings,” Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “what point is there in changing the verse?”
Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya replied, “I was not able to give that reading to the verse.”
Caitanya Carita Mahā Kāvya 12.92
prabhus tad ākarṇya ca mukti-śabda-
syānyārtham ādhāya tadaiva devaḥ
samarthayāmāsa tathāpy uvāca
Translation: Hearing this, the Lord gave another meaning to the word “mukti.” Sārvabhauma said, “This meaning has been anointed with your power.”
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.274
tathāpi sārvabhaumera mukti-śabdera ‘sāyujyārthe’ anādara o ‘bhakti’-śabdera ādara :—
yadyapi tomāra artha ei śabde kaya
tathāpi ’āśliṣya-doṣe’ kahana nā yāya
Translation: “Although Your explanation is correct, it should not be used, because there is ambiguity in the word ‘mukti–pada.’”
Caitanya Carita Mahā Kāvya 12.93
aślīla-doṣo’yam iti bravīmi
ity ādi yasyokti madhu prasiddhaṁ
sa sārvabhaumaḥ kathayā na kathyaḥ
Translation: “I say that the phrase has the fault of inauspiciousness, since it gives rise to inferior meanings.” The statement whose words are perfect and eloquent, conquers the whole world by its fame, and cannot be described by words.
Jayapatākā Swami: So, the point is that some way or other the word mukti-pada brings to mind the Supreme Personality of Godhead, that His auspicious for the hearer. And even one may be attracted by mukti, if they understand that all mukti is available at the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, they may engage in devotional service and get higher taste.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.275
yadyapi ’mukti’-śabdera haya pañca vṛtti
rūḍhi-vṛttye kahe tabu ’sāyujye’ pratīti
Translation: “The word ‘mukti’ refers to five kinds of liberation. But its direct meaning usually conveys the idea of becoming one with the Lord.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.276
mukti-śabda kahite mane haya ghṛṇā-trāsa
bhakti-śabda kahite mane haya ta’ ullāsa
Translation: “The very sound of the word ‘mukti’ immediately induces hate and fear, but when we say the word ‘bhakti,’ we naturally feel transcendental bliss within the mind.”
Jayapatākā Swami: So this shows how Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya by associating with Lord Caitanya had been so much changed. Before he was always thinking about mukti, and now he feels anger, and envy, fear against the word mukti, and he feels transcendental bliss upon saying bhakti.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.277
sārvabhaumera niṣkāma bhaktidarśane prabhura harṣa :—
śuniyā hāsena prabhu ānandita-mane
bhaṭṭācārya kaila prabhu dṛḍha āliṅgane
Translation: Upon hearing this explanation, the Lord began to laugh and, with great pleasure, immediately embraced Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya very firmly.
Jayapatākā Swami: So Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya received the special mercy of Lord Caitanya, when Lord Caitanya embraced him very firmly.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.278
granthakārera kṛṣṇa-caitanya kṛpā-mahimā-kīrtana :—
yei bhaṭṭācārya pade paḍāya māyāvāde
tāṅra aiche vākya sphure caitanya-prasāde
Translation: Indeed, that very person who had been accustomed to reading and teaching Māyāvāda philosophy was now even hating the word “mukti.” This was possible only by the mercy of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Jayapatākā Swami: Gaurāṅga!
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.279
lohāke yāvat sparśi’ hema nāhi kare
tāvat sparśa-maṇi keha cinite nā pāre
Translation: As long as it does not turn iron into gold by its touch, no one can recognize an unknown stone to be a touchstone.
Jayapatākā Swami: A touch stone may look like an ordinary stone, if once it touches an iron, it turns the iron into gold then you know it is a touchstone. Similarly, Lord Caitanya may seem like a special human being or something like that, but once someone comes in contact with Him, they achieve pure bhakti. It is like we know He is a touchstone, He turns people to bhaktas, like the touchstone turns iron into gold.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 6.280
prabhuke ‘parameśvara śrī-kṛṣṇa’ baliyā sakalera viśvāsa :—
bhaṭṭācāryera vaiṣṇavatā dekhi’ sarva-jana
prabhuke jānila—’sākṣāt vrajendra-nandana’
Translation: Upon seeing transcendental Vaiṣṇavism in Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, everyone could understand that Lord Caitanya was none other than Kṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda Mahārāja.
Jayapatākā Swami: It is said that a touchstone is recognized by turning iron into gold, but Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya explained that his heart is as hard as iron, and simply by the touch, by the association of Caitanya Mahāprabhu he was completely changed. So then people could recognize that actually Lord Caitanya is none other than Kṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda Mahārāja.
Thus ends the chapter entitled, Bhakti-pade in Place of Mukti-pade
Transcribed and Verified by JPS Archives team, 07th January 2021