Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Book Compilation
By His Holiness Jayapatākā Swami Mahārāja on 23rd January 2021 in
Śrīdhāma Māyāpur, India
mūkaṁ karoti vācālaṁ paṅguṁ laṅghayate girim
yat-kṛpā tam ahaṁ vande śrī-guruṁ dīna-tāraṇam
paramānandaṁ mādhavaṁ śrī caitanya iśvaram
hariḥ oṁ tat sat
Introduction: Today we are continuing with the compilation of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya book, today chapter entitled
Pure Love for Kṛṣṇa is the Perfection of Devotional Service in Practice
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.68
(খ) সাধনের সিদ্ধি—প্রেমভক্তি (ভাব—প্রেমের অঙ্কুর):—
প্রভু কহে,—“এহো হয়, আগে কহ আর।”
Translation: At this point, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “This is all right, but still you can speak more on the subject.”
Purport: Rāmānanda Rāya then replied, “Ecstatic love for the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the essence of all perfection.”
In his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya, Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura summarizes the conversation up to this point, where Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu says to Rāmānanda Rāya, eho haya, āge kaha āra: “This is the process accepted in devotional service, but there is something more than this. Therefore please explain what is beyond.” Simply executing the duties of all varṇas and āśramas is not as good as offering all the results of one’s activities to the Lord. When one gives up all fruitive activity and fully surrenders to the Lord, he attains sva-dharma-tyāga, wherein he abandons the social order and takes to the renounced order. That is certainly better. However, better than the renounced order is cultivation of knowledge mixed with devotional service. Yet all these activities are external to the activities of the spiritual world. There is no touch of pure devotional service in them. Pure devotional service cannot be attained by empiric philosophy, nor can perfection be attained simply by good association. Devotional service by self-realization is a different subject matter. It is untouched by fruitive activity, for one surrenders the results of activities to the Lord, abandons prescribed duties and accepts the renounced order of life. Such devotional service is situated on a higher platform than that of empiric philosophical speculation with a mixture of bhakti. This is verified by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī in his Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.1.11):
śīlanaṁ bhaktir uttamā
“One should render transcendental loving service to the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa favorably and without desire for material profit or gain through fruitive activities or philosophical speculation. That is called pure devotional service.”
Devotional activities, however, sometimes appear to be impure in the neophyte stage, but in the mature stage they are completely pure, or free from material activity. Therefore Rāmānanda Rāya replied after hearing the last statement of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu: prema-bhakti — sarva-sādhya-sāra. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu actually accepted this verse (jñāne prayāsam) as the basic principle of perfection. One has to practice this principle in order to make further progress. When further progress is actually made, one comes to the platform of ecstatic loving service to the Lord. This first stage is technically called sādhana-bhakti, or devotional service in practice. The result of sādhana-bhakti must be ecstatic love, attachment for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, which is also called prema-bhakti. In the neophyte stage, sādhana-bhakti includes faith, association with devotees, and practicing devotional service. Thus one is freed from all unwanted things. One then becomes fixed in devotional service and increases his desire to act in devotional service. Thus one becomes attached to the Lord and His devotional service.
Caitanya Carita Mahā Kāvya 13.35
upetya godāvarikāṁ sa nāthaḥ
jagāma tad-veśmani śīta-raśmir
ivodayādriṁ jaladāgamās te
Translation: Arriving at the Godāvarī, the Lord in joy went to Rāmānanda’s house to introduce himself. He was like the autumn moon rising on the eastern horizon.
Caitanya Carita Mahā Kāvya 13.36
vilokya nāthaṁ sa tu kṛṣṇa-citto
nanāma harṣād bhuvi saṁnipatya
āhlāda-lakṣmīm uditāṁ babhāra
Translation: Seeing the Lord, Rāmānanda, who always remembered Kṛṣṇa, joyfully offered respects, falling on the ground. After that, he experienced the greatest bliss, which had increased by millions of times.
Caitanya Carita Mahā Kāvya 13.37
īśas tu tad-darśana-mātrato’sau
druto bhavac-cetasi harṣa-bhāraiḥ
Translation: Just on seeing him, the Lord’s heart melted in bliss. The Lord, most beautiful in the universe, shone with the beauty of many Cupids.
Caitanya Carita Mahā Kāvya 13.38
uvāca kiṣcit stanayitnu-dhīraṁ
sa-kaitavaṁ bhoḥ kavitāṁ paṭheti
tadā tad ākarṇya mahārasajñaḥ
Translation: The Lord said in a voice like a rumbling cloud, with some deception, “Read some poetry.” Hearing this, Rāmānanda, who knew about the greatest rasa, recited a verse filled with the rasa of renunciation.
Caitanya Carita Mahā Kāvya 13.39
vairāgyaṁ cej janayatitarāṁ pāpam evāstu yasmāt
sāndraṁ rāgaṁ janayati na cet puṇyam asmāsu bhūyāt
vairāgyeṇa pramudita-mano-vṛttir abhyeti rāgaṁ
rāgeṇa strī-jaṭhara-kuhare tāmyati brāhmaṇo’pi
Translation: If detachment manifests it is good, for sin is destroyed. If it does not manifest, then deep material attachment arises. We will attain great advantage by detachment. An enjoying mind produces attachment. By attachment even a brāhmaṇa enters a womb.
Jayapatākā Swami: So, if one is attached to material life then they have to take birth again. Even if one is brāhmaṇa, they will take birth again. When one gets completely detached from material life and attached to Kṛṣṇa that is the perfection.
Caitanya Carita Mahā Kāvya 13.40
itīdam ākarṇya sa gauracandro
bāhyātibāhyaṁ bata bāhyam etat
gamānta-kṛn nātimudaṁ prapede
Translation: Hearing this, Gauracandra said, “That is external.” The austerity arising in the heart from these words did not produce bliss.
Caitanya Carita Mahā Kāvya 13.41
tataś ca saṁśuddha-matiḥ sa rāmā-
papāṭha bhakteḥ pratipādayitrīm
ekānta-kāntāṁ kavitāṁ svakīyām
Translation: Pure in mind, Rāmānanda, feeling bliss in all his limbs, recited his own attractive verse which explained bhakti.
Caitanya Carita Mahā Kāvya 13.42 and Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.69
ভক্তপ্রেমেই কৃষ্ণ বশ :—পদাবলীতে ১১শ অঙ্ক-ধৃত রামানন্দ রায় কৃত শ্লোক —
premṇaiva bhakta-hṛdayaṁ sukha-vidrutaṁ syāt
yāvat kṣud asti jaṭhare jaraṭhā pipāsā
tāvat sukhāya bhavato nanu bhakṣya-peye
Translation: Rāmānanda Rāya continued, “‘As long as there is hunger and thirst within the stomach, varieties of food and drink make one feel very happy. Similarly, when the Lord is worshiped with pure love, the various activities performed in the course of that worship awaken transcendental bliss in the heart of the devotee.’
Jayapatākā Swami: So, just as when one feels hunger in the stomach, by eating they feel bliss. When someone has transcendental attachment for the Lord then they feel transcendental bliss in their heart.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.70
রাগমার্গেই কৃষ্ণপ্রেমা লভ্য, সুকৃতিজনিত বৈধভক্তিতে দুর্লভ :—
পদাবলীতে ১২শ অঙ্ক-ধৃত রামানন্দ রায়-কৃত শ্লোক—
ক্রীয়তাং যদি কুতোঽপি লভ্যতে
তত্র লৌল্যমপি মূল্যমেকলং
Translation: “‘Pure devotional service in Kṛṣṇa consciousness cannot be had even by pious activity in hundreds and thousands of lives. It can be attained only by paying one price — that is, intense greed to obtain it. If it is available somewhere, one must purchase it without delay.’”
Purport: The previous two verses are included in the Padyāvalī (13, 14), an anthology compiled by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī. Verse 69 refers to devotional service in faith, and verse 70 refers to devotional service rendered out of intense greed. The first is devotional service rendered in accordance with the regulative principles, and the second refers to spontaneous loving service of the Lord without extraneous endeavor. Henceforward the basic principle underlying the talks between Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rāmānanda Rāya will be spontaneous loving service to the Lord. The regulative principles according to the injunctions of the śāstras are necessary insofar as one’s original dormant Kṛṣṇa consciousness is not spontaneously awakened. An example of spontaneous action is the flowing of rivers into the ocean. Nothing can stop this flow of water. Similarly, when one’s dormant Kṛṣṇa consciousness is awakened, it spontaneously flows to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa without impediment. Whatever will be spoken henceforth by Rāmānanda Rāya based on spontaneous love will be agreeable to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and the Lord will ask him more and more about this subject.
Jayapatākā Swami: So, the topics which were mentioned before were just to awaken one’s dormant love and when one has their love for Kṛṣṇa awakened, then they will develop spontaneous loving devotional service.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.71
(১) দাস্য-প্রেম’ উত্তম নহে :—
প্রভু কহে,—“এহো হয়, আগে কহ আর।
রায় কহে,—“দাস্য-প্রেম—সৰ্বসাধ্যসার ॥
Translation: Hearing up to the point of spontaneous love, the Lord said, “This is all right, but if you know more, please tell Me.”
Purport: In reply, Rāmānanda Rāya said, “Spontaneous loving service in servitude — as exchanged by master and servant — is the highest perfection.
Spontaneous loving service to the Lord is called devotional service with an intimate attachment between the servitor and the served. This intimacy is called mamatā. Between the servitor and the served there is a feeling of oneness. This mamatā begins with dāsya-prema, service rendered to the master by the servant. Unless there is such a relationship, the loving affairs between the Lord and His devotee are not actually fixed. When the devotee feels “The Lord is my master” and renders service unto Him, Kṛṣṇa consciousness is awakened. This fixed consciousness is on a higher platform than simple cognizance of love of Godhead.
Jayapatākā Swami: So, there are five types of Love for Kṛṣṇa, this servitude is second, dāsya rasa.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.72
কৃষ্ণদাসই কৃষ্ণের সর্বৈশ্বর্য্যের অধিকারী :— শ্রীমদ্ভাগবত (৯/৫/১৬)
যন্নামশ্রুতিমাত্রেণ পুমান্ ভবতি নিৰ্ম্মলঃ ।
তস্য তীর্থপদঃ কিংবা দাসানামবশিষ্যতে
Translation: “‘A man becomes purified simply by hearing the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose lotus feet create the holy places of pilgrimage. Therefore what remains to be attained by those who have become His servants?’
Purport: This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (9.5.16) and is an admission by the great sage Durvāsā Muni. Durvāsā Muni, a caste brāhmaṇa and great yogī, used to hate Mahārāja Ambarīṣa. When he decided to chastise Mahārāja Ambarīṣa through his yogic powers, he was chased by the Sudarśana cakra of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When things were settled, he said, “When the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is heard by any person, that person is immediately sanctified. The Supreme Lord is master of the devotees, and the devotees, under His shelter, naturally come to own His opulences.”
Jayapatākā Swami: So, by a devotee being under the shelter of the Lord, he has the potency of the Lord protecting him.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.73
ভগবদ্দাসের দৈন্য :—যামুনাচাৰ্য্যপাদ-কৃত স্তোত্ররত্ন (৪৬)—
ভবন্তমেবানুচরন্নিরন্তরঃ প্রশান্তনিঃশেষমনোরথান্তরঃ ।
প্রহর্ষয়িষ্যামি স নাথ জীবিতম্
Translation: “‘By serving You constantly, one is freed from all material desires and is completely pacified. When shall I engage as Your permanent eternal servant and always feel joyful to have such a perfect master?’”
Purport: This is a statement made by the great saintly devotee Yāmunācārya in his Stotra-ratna (43).
Jayapatākā Swami: Yāmunācārya is the sīkṣā guru of Rāmānujācārya
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.74
(২) সখ্যপ্রেম’—উত্তম :—
প্রভু কহে,—“এহো হয়, কিছু আগে আর।”
রায় কহে,—“সখ্য-প্রেম-সৰ্বসাধ্যসার ॥”
Translation: Hearing this from Rāmānanda Rāya, the Lord again requested him to go a step further. In reply, Rāmānanda Rāya said, “Loving service to Kṛṣṇa rendered in fraternity is the highest perfection.
Purport: As long as loving service is rendered to the Lord in the master-servant relationship, there is some fear, for the servant is always afraid of the master, despite the intimacy of self-interest. In this stage the servant is always afraid of the master and respectful of Him. When the devotee is further advanced, he has nothing to fear. He considers the Lord and himself on an equal level. At such a time, the devotee is fully convinced that Lord Kṛṣṇa is a friend and cannot at all be dissatisfied if the devotee lives with Him on an equal level. This understanding is called viśrambha, that is, devoid of a respectful attitude. When this attitude is chosen, it becomes sakhya-prema, or love of Godhead in friendship. On this stage there is developed consciousness of equality between the Lord and the devotee.
Jayapatākā Swami: So, in Vṛndāvana the friends of Krsna they don’t consider Kṛṣṇa greater than themselves. When Kṛṣṇa was lifting the Govardhana hill, His friends they wanted to relieve Him and they put their sticks under the hill. Actually Kṛṣṇa could lift the hill on one finger but His friends they couldn’t do that. But they were always thinking that Kṛṣṇa is their friend and they did not think He was greater than them, they wanted to always help Kṛṣṇa as a friend.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.75
ব্রজের গোপালগণের কৃষ্ণসখ্যমহিমা :— শ্রীমদ্ভাগবত (১০/১২/১১)—
itthaṁ satāṁ brahma-sukhānubhūtyā
dāsyaṁ gatānāṁ para-daivatena
sārdhaṁ vijahruḥ kṛta-puṇya-puñjāḥ
Translation: “‘Neither those engaged in the self-realization of appreciating the Brahman effulgence of the Lord, nor those engaged in devotional service while accepting the Supreme Personality of Godhead as master, nor those under the clutches of Māyā, thinking the Lord an ordinary person, can understand that certain exalted personalities, after accumulating volumes of pious activities, are now playing with the Lord in friendship as cowherd boys.’”
Purport: This is a statement made by Śukadeva Gosvāmī (Bhāg. 10.12.11), who appreciated the good fortune of the cowherd boys who played with Kṛṣṇa and ate with Him on the banks of the Yamunā.
Jayapatākā Swami: So, the very good fortune of the devotees of Krsna who acted as His friends, is being appreciated by Śukadeva Gosvāmī.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.76
(৩) ‘বাৎসল্য-প্রেম’ তদপেক্ষাও উত্তম :—
প্রভু কহে,—“এহো উত্তম, আগে কহ আর ”
রায় কহে, “বাৎসল্য-প্রেম-সর্ব্বাসাধ্যসার ॥”
Translation: The Lord said, “This statement is very good, but please proceed even further.”
Purport: Rāmānanda Rāya then replied, “Loving service to the Lord in the parental relationship is the highest perfectional stage.”
The stage of loving service to the Lord in parental affection is an advanced stage of love in fraternity. In the fraternal relationship there is a sense of equality, but when that sense of equality is advanced in affection, one attains the platform of parental love. In this connection, the following verse is cited from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.8.46), wherein Mahārāja Parīkṣit voices his appreciation of Nanda Mahārāja’s and mother Yaśodā’s intense love for Kṛṣṇa.
Jayapatākā Swami: In the paternal love, the mother and father of Kṛṣṇa think that Kṛṣṇa is inferior to them, and they have the duty to protect Him, they have intense love for Kṛṣṇa.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.77
নন্দ-যশোদার বাৎসল্য-মহিমা :— শ্রীমদ্ভাগবত (১০/৮/৪৬) —
nandaḥ kim akarod brahman
śreya evaṁ mahodayam
yaśodā vā mahā-bhāgā
papau yasyāḥ stanaṁ hariḥ
Translation: Rāmānanda Rāya continued, “‘O brāhmaṇa, what pious activities did Nanda Mahārāja perform by which he received the Supreme Personality of Godhead Kṛṣṇa as his son? And what pious activities did mother Yaśodā perform that made the Absolute Supreme Personality of Godhead Kṛṣṇa call her “Mother” and suck her breasts?’
Jayapatākā Swami: So, Nand Mahārāja and Yaśoda, had so much affection that He could relate with them as His father and mother.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.78
nemaṁ viriñco na bhavo
na śrīr apy aṅga-saṁśrayā
prasādaṁ lebhire gopī
yat tat prāpa vimukti-dāt
Translation: “‘The favor mother Yaśodā obtained from Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the bestower of liberation, was never obtained even by Lord Brahmā or Lord Śiva, nor even by the goddess of fortune, who always remains on the chest of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Viṣṇu.’”
Purport: This is a statement from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.9.20). Kṛṣṇa agreed to be bound by mother Yaśodā after she had given up trying to bind Kṛṣṇa with ropes. This is another appreciation made by Śukadeva Gosvāmī in his narration of the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa before Mahārāja Parīkṣit.
Jayapatākā Swami: Kṛṣṇa is called as ajitha, He is unconquerable. But He is conquered by the love of His Mother Yaśoda.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.79
(৪) ‘কান্তভাব’ই সর্ব্বশ্রেষ্ঠ প্রেমভক্তি :—
প্রভু কহে,—“এহো উত্তম, আগে কহ আর।”
রায় কহে,—“কান্তভাৰ—প্রেমসাধ্যসার ॥”
Translation: The Lord said, “Your statements are certainly getting better and better one after the other, but surpassing all of them is another transcendental mellow, and you can speak of that as the most sublime.”
Purport: Rāmānanda Rāya then replied, “Conjugal attachment for Kṛṣṇa is the topmost position in love of Godhead.
In general, love of Godhead is devoid of the intimacy of ownership. In the case of love in servitude, there is a want of confidence. There is a want of increased affection in the fraternal relationship, and even when this affection increases in the parental relationship, there is nonetheless a want of complete freedom. However, when one becomes a conjugal lover of Kṛṣṇa, everything lacking in the other relationships is completely manifest. Love of Godhead lacks nothing in the conjugal stage. The summary of this verse is that parental love of Godhead is certainly higher than fraternal love and that conjugal love is higher yet. It was when Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu requested Rāmānanda Rāya to go further that he came to the point of the conjugal relationship, which is the highest perfectional stage of transcendental love.
Jayapatākā Swami: So in this Rāmānanda Rāya was going one step higher and Lord Caitanya was saying, “ that’s alright, you can go higher”. Finally He came to the conjugal relationship of Kṛṣṇa and that was the highest perfectional stage of transcendental love.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.80
ব্রজগোপীর মাহাত্ম্য :— শ্রীমদ্ভাগবত (১০/৪৭/৬০)—
nāyaṁ śriyo ’ṅga u nitānta-rateḥ prasādaḥ
svar-yoṣitāṁ nalina-gandha-rucāṁ kuto ’nyāḥ
rāsotsave ’sya bhuja-daṇḍa-gṛhīta-kaṇṭha-
labdhāśiṣāṁ ya udagād vraja-sundarīṇām
Translation: “‘When Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa was dancing with the gopīs in the rāsa-līlā, the gopīs were embraced around the neck by the Lord’s arms. This transcendental favor was never bestowed upon the goddess of fortune or the other consorts in the spiritual world. Nor was such a thing ever imagined by the most beautiful girls in the heavenly planets, girls whose bodily luster and aroma resemble the beauty and fragrance of lotus flowers. And what to speak of worldly women, who may be very, very beautiful according to material estimation?’
Purport: This verse (Bhāg. 10.47.60) was spoken by Uddhava when he visited Śrī Vṛndāvana to deliver a message from Kṛṣṇa to the gopīs. Uddhava remained in Vṛndāvana to observe the activities of the gopīs there. When he saw the ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa in separation manifested by the gopīs, he appreciated their supreme love and therefore expressed his feelings in this verse. He admitted that the fortune of the gopīs could not be compared even to the fortune of the goddess of fortune, to say nothing of the beautiful girls in the heavenly planets.
Jayapatākā Swami: So, the mercy that Kṛṣṇa gave the cowherd girls of Vṛndāvana is more than anyone else.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.81
tāsām āvirabhūc chauriḥ
Translation: “‘Suddenly, due to their feelings of separation, Lord Kṛṣṇa appeared among the gopīs dressed in yellow garments and wearing a flower garland. His lotus face was smiling, and He was directly attracting the mind of Cupid.’
Purport: This verse is from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.32.2). When the rāsa dance was going on, Kṛṣṇa suddenly disappeared, and the gopīs became so overwhelmed, due to His separation and their intense love for Him, that Kṛṣṇa was obliged to appear again.
Jayapatākā Swami: So, the spiritual love the gopīs felt for Kṛṣṇa is transcendental, but people mistake these activities as something material. But actually it is very intense love that they feel which is not of this material world.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.82
কৃষ্ণপ্রাপ্তির উপায় বহুবিধ হয় ।
কৃষ্ণপ্রাপ্তিতারতম্য বহুত আছয়
Translation: “There are various means and processes by which one may attain the favor of Lord Kṛṣṇa. All those transcendental processes will be studied from the viewpoint of comparative importance.
Jayapatākā Swami: So, we can see that Rāmānanda Rāya is studying the various processes of serving Kṛṣṇa in a very comparative way, to see which is better.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.83
প্রতিরসের শ্রেষ্ঠতা হইলেও পরস্পরের তারতম্য বর্তমান ও
কিন্তু যাঁর যেই রস, সেই সৰ্বোত্তম।
তটস্থা হঞা বিচারিলে, আছে তর-তম
Translation: “It is true that whatever relationship a particular devotee has with the Lord is the best for him; still, when we study all the different methods from a neutral position, we can understand that there are higher and lower degrees of love.
Jayapatākā Swami: So each devotee according to his personal relationship with Kṛṣṇa is fully satisfied. But from a neutral position one can see which love is more intense or complete.
Purport: In this regard, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura explains that this verse does not advocate the whimsical invention of some methods of love of Godhead. Such inventions cannot be accepted as topmost. Indeed, such concoctions are not recommended in these verses. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī has said in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.101):
aikāntikī harer bhaktir
He clearly mentions in this verse that one must refer to the Vedic literatures and other, supplementary literatures and follow the conclusion of the Vedas. An invented devotional attitude simply creates disturbances in the transcendental realm. If a person overly addicted to family life takes to Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam or Kṛṣṇa consciousness to earn a livelihood, his activity is certainly offensive. One should not become a caste guru and sell mantras for the benefit of mundane customers, nor should one make disciples for a livelihood. All these activities are offensive. One should not make a livelihood by forming a professional band to carry out congregational chanting, nor should one perform devotional service when one is attached to mundane society, friendship and love. Nor should one be dependent on so-called social etiquette. All of this is mental speculation. None of these things can be compared to unalloyed devotional service. No one can compare unalloyed devotional service, Kṛṣṇa consciousness, to mundane activities. There are many unauthorized parties pretending to belong to the Śrī Caitanya cult, and some are known as āula, bāula, kartābhajā, neḍā, daraveśa, sāṅi, sahajiyā sakhībhekī, smārta, jāta–gosāṣi, ativāḍī, cūḍādhārī and gaurāṅga–nāgarī.
Moreover, there are those who take the caste gosvāmīs’ opinions of such parties as bona fide, comparing these opinions to those of the six Gosvāmīs, headed by Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Sanātana. This is simply another cheating process. There are also nondevotees who compose unauthorized songs, who establish different temples for money, who worship the Deity as priests for salaries, who accept caste brahmanism as all in all, and who do not know the value of a pure Vaiṣṇava. Actually the caste brāhmaṇas of the smārta community are opposed to the principles of the Sātvata-pañcarātra. Furthermore, there are many Māyāvādīs and those overly addicted to material sense enjoyment. None of these can be compared to a person who is purely engaged in preaching Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
Every Kṛṣṇa conscious person is constantly endeavoring to utilize different transcendental devices in the service of the Lord. Such a devotee renounces all material enjoyment and completely dedicates himself to the service of his spiritual master and Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He may be a perfect celibate, a restrained householder, a regulated vānaprastha or a tridaṇḍi–sannyāsī in the renounced order. It doesn’t matter. The pseudo transcendentalists and the pure devotees cannot be compared, nor can one argue that a person can invent his own way of worship.
The purport in presenting this verse necessitates explaining the comparative positions of the transcendental mellows known as śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya and mādhurya. All these rasas, or mellows, are situated on the transcendental platform. Pure devotees take shelter of one of them and thus progress in spiritual life. Actually one can take shelter of such spiritual mellows only when one is completely uncontaminated by material attachment. When one is completely free from material attachment, the feelings of the transcendental mellows are awakened in the heart of the devotee. That is svarūpa-siddhi, the perfection of one’s eternal relationship with the Supreme Lord. Svarūpa-siddhi, the eternal relationship with the Supreme Lord, may be situated in any one of the transcendental mellows. Each and every one of them is as perfect as the others. But by comparative study an unbiased person can realize that the mellow of servitorship is better than the mellow of neutrality, that the mellow of fraternity is better than the mellow of servitorship, that the parental mellow is better than that of fraternity, and that above all other mellows is the mellow of conjugal love. However, these are all spiritually situated on the same platform because all these relationships of perfection in love are based on a central point — Kṛṣṇa.
These mellows cannot be compared to the feelings one derives from demigod worship. Kṛṣṇa is one, but the demigods are different. They are material. Love for Kṛṣṇa cannot be compared to material love for different demigods. Because Māyāvādīs are on the material platform, they recommend the worship of Śiva or Durgā and say that worship of Kālī and Kṛṣṇa are the same. However, on the spiritual platform there is no demigod worship. The only worshipable object is Kṛṣṇa. Therefore although there is no difference between a devotee in śānta-rasa or dāsya-rasa, vātsalya-rasa or mādhurya-rasa, one can still make a comparative study of the intensity of love in these different transcendental positions. For example, it may be said that dāsya-rasa is better than śānta-rasa, yet transcendental love of God is there in both of them. Similarly, we can judge that love of Godhead in fraternity is better than love of Godhead in neutrality and servitorship. Similarly, love of Godhead in parental affection is better than love in fraternity. And, as stated before, love of God in the conjugal rasa is superior to that in the parental rasa.
The analysis of different types of love of Godhead has been made by expert ācāryas who know all about devotional service on the transcendental platform. Unfortunately, inexperienced and unauthorized persons in the mundane world, not understanding the transcendental position of pure love, try to find some material fault in the transcendental process. This is simply impudence on the part of spiritually inexperienced people. Such faultfinding is symptomatic of unfortunate mundane wranglers.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.84
yathottaram asau svāda-
ratir vāsanayā svādvī
bhāsate kāpi kasyacit
Translation: “‘Increasing love is experienced in various tastes, one above another. But that love which has the highest taste in the gradual succession of desires manifests itself in the form of conjugal love.’
Purport: This verse is from Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.5.38), and it also appears in Ādi-līlā, chapter four, verse 45.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.85
মধুর রসেই শান্তাদি রসচতুষ্টয়ের পৰ্য্যবসান :—
পূৰ্ব্ব-পূৰ্ব্ব রসের গুণ—পরে-পরে হয় ।
এক-দুই গণনে পঞ্চ পৰ্য্যন্ত বাড়ায়
Translation: “There is a gradual order of improvement in transcendental mellows from the initial ones to the later ones. In each subsequent mellow the qualities of the previous mellows are manifested, counting from two, then three, and up to the point of five complete qualities.
Jayapatākā Swami: So, what is missing in the śānta-rasa is included in the dāsya-rasa and what dāsya has is included in the sākhya with something more, and like that each one has everything of the previous rasa but something more, and conjugal rasa had all the parts of the previous rasas and more.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.86
গুণাধিক্যে স্বাদাধিক্য বাড়ে প্রতিরসে ।
শান্ত দাস্য-সখ্য-বাৎসল্যের গুণ মধুরেতে বৈসে
Translation: “As the qualities increase, so the taste also increases in each and every mellow. Therefore the qualities found in śānta-rasa, dāsya-rasa, sakhya-rasa and vātsalya-rasa are all manifested in conjugal love [mādhurya-rasa].
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.87
জড়ীয় দৃষ্টান্ত ; পঞ্চম মহাভূত ভূমি’তেই অপর ভূত-চতুষ্টয়ের পৰ্য্যবসান :—
আকাশাদির গুণ যেন পর-পর ভূতে ।
দুই-তিনগণনে বাড়ে পঞ্চ পৃথিবীতে
Translation: “The qualities in the material elements — sky, air, fire, water and earth — increase one after another by a gradual process of one, two and three, and at the last stage, in the element earth, all five qualities are completely visible.
Jayapatākā Swami: Like in the ether there is sound, in the air there is sound plus touch, in the fire there is sound, touch and vision, in the water there is taste and all the others also. In the earth, we have sound, touch, vision, taste and smell. So in the same way the pure loving mellows, each include the previous ones.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.88
শৃঙ্গার রস-লক্ষণ প্রেমার বশ কৃষ্ণ :—
পরিপূর্ণ কৃষ্ণপ্রাপ্তি এই ‘প্রেমা’ হৈতে ।
এই প্রেমার বশ কৃষ্ণ—কহে ভাগবতে
Translation: “Complete attainment of the lotus feet of Lord Kṛṣṇa is made possible by love of Godhead, specifically mādhurya-rasa, or conjugal love. Lord Kṛṣṇa is indeed captivated by this standard of love. This is stated in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
Purport: To explain the topmost quality of conjugal love, Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī gives the example of the material elements — sky, air, fire, water and earth. In the sky (space) there is the quality of sound. Similarly, in air there are the qualities of sound and touch. In fire, there are three qualities — sound, touch and form. In water there are four qualities — sound, touch, form and taste. Finally, in earth there are all five qualities — sound, touch, form, taste and also smell. Now, one can see that the quality of the sky is in all — namely in air, fire, water and earth. In earth we can find all the qualities of material nature. The same can be applied to the rasa known as mādhurya-rasa, or conjugal love. In conjugal love there are the qualities of neutrality, servitorship, fraternity and parental affection, as well as those of conjugal love itself. The conclusion is that through conjugal love the Lord is completely satisfied.
Conjugal love (mādhurya-rasa) is also known as śṛṅgāra-rasa. It is the conclusion of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam that in the complete combination of loving service to the Lord — namely in conjugal love — the Supreme Lord fully agrees to be under the control of the devotee. The highest form of conjugal love is represented by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; therefore in the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa we can see that Kṛṣṇa is always subjugated by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s influence.
Jayapatākā Swami: Just as Krsna was tied by the love of Yaśoda, He is always influenced by the love of Srimati Rādhārāṇī
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.89
কৃষ্ণে প্রেমভক্তিই কৃষ্ণপ্রদা :— শ্রীমদ্ভাগবত (১০/৮২/৪৪)—
ময়ি ভক্তিৰ্হি ভূতানামমৃতত্বায় কল্পতে ।।
দিষ্ট্যা যদাসীন্মৎস্নেহো ভবতীনাং মদাপনঃ
Translation: “Lord Kṛṣṇa told the gopīs, ‘The means of attaining My favor is loving service unto Me, and fortunately you are all thus engaged. Those living beings who render service unto Me are eligible to be transferred to the spiritual world and attain eternal life with knowledge and bliss.’
Purport: The fulfillment of human life is summarized in this verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.82.44). There are two important words in this verse: bhakti (devotional service) and amṛtatva (eternal life). The aim of human life is to attain the natural position of eternal life. This eternal life can be achieved only by devotional service.
Jayapatākā Swami: So this verse tells us how perfection of life can be achieved by pure devotional service only.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.90
ভক্তের ভজন-গাঢ়তা-তারতম্যে কৃষ্ণভক্তি লাভেরও তারতম্য :—
কৃষ্ণের প্রতিজ্ঞা দৃঢ় সৰ্ব্বকালে আছে।
যে যৈছে ভজে, কৃষ্ণ তারে ভজে তৈছে
Translation: “Lord Kṛṣṇa has made a firm promise for all time. If one renders service unto Him, Kṛṣṇa correspondingly gives him an equal amount of success in devotional service to the Lord.
Purport: It is a completely mistaken idea that one can worship Kṛṣṇa in any form or in any way and still attain the ultimate result of receiving the favor of the Lord. This is a decision made by gross materialists. Generally such men say that you can manufacture your own way of worshiping the Supreme Lord and that any type of worship is sufficient to approach the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Certainly there are different means for attaining different results in fruitive activity, speculative knowledge, mystic yoga and austerity. Crude men therefore say that one who adopts any of these methods achieves the Supreme Personality of Godhead’s favor. They claim that it doesn’t matter what kind of method one adopts. A general example is given: If one wishes to arrive at a certain place, there are many roads leading there, and one can go to that place by any one of these roads. Similarly, these gross materialists say, there are different ways to attain the favor of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They claim that one can conceive of the Supreme Personality of Godhead as goddess Durgā, goddess Kālī, Lord Śiva, demigod Gaṇeśa, Lord Rāmacandra, Kṛṣṇa, the impersonal Brahman or whatever, and one can chant the Lord’s name in any way and in any form. Such materialists claim that since ultimately all these names and forms are one, the result is the same. They also give the example that a man who has different names will answer if called by any one of them. Therefore, they claim, there is no need to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. If one chants the name of Kālī, Durgā, Śiva, Gaṇeśa or anyone else, the result will be the same.
Such claims made by mental speculators are no doubt very pleasing to mental speculators, but those who are actually in knowledge do not admit such conclusions, which are against the authority of the śāstras. A bona fide ācārya will certainly not accept such a conclusion. As Kṛṣṇa clearly states in the Bhagavad-gītā (9.25):
yānti deva-vratā devān
pitṝn yānti pitṛ-vratāḥ
bhūtāni yānti bhūtejyā
yānti mad-yājino ’pi mām
“Those who worship the demigods will take birth among the demigods, those who worship the ancestors go to the ancestors, those who worship ghosts and spirits will take birth among such beings, and those who worship Me will live with Me.”
Only the devotees of the Lord can be admitted to His kingdom — not the demigod worshipers, karmīs, yogīs or anyone else. A person who desires elevation to the heavenly planets worships various demigods, and material nature may be pleased to offer such devotees their desired positions. The material nature gives a person his own nature, by which he increases affection for different types of demigods. However, the Bhagavad-gītā (7.20) says that demigod worship is meant for men who have lost all their intelligence:
kāmais tais tair hṛta-jñānāḥ
taṁ taṁ niyamam āsthāya
prakṛtyā niyatāḥ svayā
“Those whose intelligence has been stolen by material desires surrender unto demigods and follow the particular rules and regulations of worship according to their own natures.”
Although one may be elevated to the heavenly planets, the results of such a benediction are limited:
anta-vat tu phalaṁ teṣāṁ
tad bhavaty alpa-medhasām
devān deva-yajo yānti
mad-bhaktā yānti mām api
“Men of small intelligence worship the demigods, and their fruits are limited and temporary. Those who worship the demigods go to the planets of the demigods, but My devotees ultimately reach My supreme planet.” (Bg. 7.23)
Being elevated to the heavenly planets or other material planets does not mean attaining an eternal life of knowledge and bliss. At the end of the material world, all attainments of material elevation will also end. Again, according to Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (18.55), only those who engage in His loving devotional service will be admitted to the spiritual world and return to Godhead, not others:
bhaktyā mām abhijānāti
yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ
tato māṁ tattvato jñātvā
“One can understand Me as I am, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, only by devotional service. And when one is in full consciousness of Me by such devotion, he can enter into the kingdom of God.”
Impersonalists cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead; therefore it is not possible for them to enter into the spiritual kingdom of God and return home, back to Godhead. Actually one attains different results by different means. It is not that all achievements are one and the same. Those interested in the four principles of dharma, artha, kāma and mokṣa cannot be compared to those interested in the unalloyed devotional service of the Lord. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.1.2) therefore says:
dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavo ’tra paramo nirmatsarāṇāṁ satāṁ
vedyaṁ vāstavam atra vastu śiva-daṁ tāpa-trayonmūlanam
śrīmad-bhāgavate mahā-muni-kṛte kiṁ vā parair īśvaraḥ
sadyo hṛdy avarudhyate ’tra kṛtibhiḥ śuśrūṣubhis tat-kṣaṇāt
“Completely rejecting all religious activities which are materially motivated, this Bhāgavata Purāṇa propounds the highest truth, which is understandable by those devotees who are pure in heart. The highest truth is reality distinguished from illusion for the welfare of all. Such truth uproots the threefold miseries. This beautiful Bhāgavatam, compiled by the great sage Śrī Vyāsadeva, is sufficient in itself for God realization. As soon as one attentively and submissively hears the message of Bhāgavatam, he becomes attached to the Supreme Lord.”
Those who aspire after liberation attempt to merge into the impersonal Brahman. To this end they execute ritualistic religious ceremonies, but Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam considers this a cheating process. Indeed, such people can never dream of returning home, back to Godhead. There is a gulf of difference between the goal of dharma, artha, kāma and mokṣa and the goal of devotional service.
The goddess Durgā is the superintending deity of this material world, which is made of material elements. The demigods are simply different directors engaged in operating the departments of material activities, and they are under the influence of the same material energy. Kṛṣṇa’s internal potencies, however, have nothing to do with the creation of this cosmic material world. The spiritual world and all spiritual activities are under the direction of the internal, spiritual energy, and such activities are performed by Yogamāyā, the spiritual energy. Yogamāyā is the spiritual or internal energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Those who are interested in being promoted to the spiritual world and engaging in the service of the Lord attain spiritual perfection under the control of Yogamāyā. Those who are interested in material promotion engage in ritualistic religious ceremonies and economic development to develop sense gratification. They ultimately attempt to merge into the impersonal existence of the Lord. Such people generally become impersonalists. They are interested in worshiping Lord Śiva or goddess Durgā, but their return is one hundred percent materialistic.
Following the example of the gopīs, the devotees sometimes worship the goddess Kātyāyanī, but they understand that Kātyāyanī is an incarnation of Yogamāyā. The gopīs worshiped Kātyāyanī, Yogamāyā, to attain Kṛṣṇa as their husband. On the other hand, it is stated in the Sapta-śatī scripture that a kṣatriya king named Suratha and a rich vaiśya named Samādhi worshiped material nature in the form of goddess Durgā to attain material perfection. If one tries to mingle the worship of Yogamāyā with that of Mahāmāyā, considering them one and the same, he does not really show very high intelligence. The idea that everything is one is a kind of foolishness indulged in by those with less brain substance. Fools and rascals say that the worship of Yogamāyā and the worship of Mahāmāyā are the same. This conclusion is simply the result of mental speculation, and it has no practical effect. In the material world, sometimes one gives an exalted title to an utterly worthless thing; in Bengal this is known as giving a blind child a name like Padmalocana, which means “lotus-eyed.” One may foolishly call a blind child Padmalocana, but such an appellation does not bear any meaning.
In the spiritual world the Absolute Lord is always identical with His name, fame, form, qualities and pastimes. Such identity is impossible in the material world, where the name of a person is different from the person himself. The Supreme Lord has many holy names like Paramātmā, Brahman and “the creator,” but one who worships the Lord as the creator cannot understand the relationship between a devotee and the Lord in the five types of transcendental mellows, nor can he understand the conception of Kṛṣṇa. One cannot understand the six transcendental opulences of the Lord simply by understanding the Supreme Personality of Godhead as impersonal Brahman.
Impersonal realization of the Absolute Truth is certainly transcendental, but this does not mean that one who has attained this realization can understand the sac-cid-ānanda form of the Lord. Similarly, Paramātmā realization — realization of the plenary expansion of the Absolute Truth within everyone’s heart — is also an incomplete understanding of the Absolute Truth. Even a devotee of the Personality of Godhead Nārāyaṇa cannot actually understand the transcendental attractive features of Kṛṣṇa. Indeed, a devotee of Kṛṣṇa who is attached to the sublime attractive features of the Lord does not consider Nārāyaṇa very important. When the gopīs sometimes saw Kṛṣṇa in the form of Nārāyaṇa, they were not very much attracted to Him. The gopīs never addressed Kṛṣṇa as Rukmiṇī-ramaṇa. Kṛṣṇa’s devotees in Vṛndāvana address Him as Rādhāramaṇa, Nandanandana and Yaśodānandana, but not as Vasudeva-nandana or Devakī-nandana. Although according to the material conception Nārāyaṇa, Rukmiṇī-ramaṇa and Kṛṣṇa are one and the same, in the spiritual world one cannot use the name Rukmiṇī-ramaṇa or Nārāyaṇa in place of the name Kṛṣṇa. If one does so out of a poor fund of knowledge, his mellow with the Lord becomes spiritually faulty and is called rasābhāsa, an overlapping of transcendental mellows. The advanced devotee who has actually realized the transcendental features of the Lord will not commit the mistake of creating a rasābhāsa situation by using one name for another. Because of the influence of Kali-yuga, there is much rasābhāsa in the name of extravagance and liberal-mindedness. Such fanaticism is not very much appreciated by pure devotees.
Jayapatākā Swami: So these are very esoteric topics, in the pastimes of the Lord in Vṛndāvana one cannot use the name of the Lord in Dvārakā. So these things are understood by devotees. One has to be able to very careful to avoid these rasābhāsa or mixing of incompatible names.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.91
ye yathā māṁ prapadyante
tāṁs tathaiva bhajāmy aham
manuṣyāḥ pārtha sarvaśaḥ
“[According to Lord Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (4.11):] ‘As all surrender unto Me, I reward them accordingly. Everyone follows My path in all respects, O son of Pṛthā.’
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.92
গোপীর মধুর রসের সেবার বিনিময়ে কৃষ্ণের আত্মপ্রদানে অসামর্থ্যহেতু ঋণ :—
এই ‘প্রেমের’,অনুরূপ না পারে ভজিতে।
অতএব ‘ঋণী’ হয় কহে ভাগবতে
Translation: ‘In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.32.22] it is said that Lord Kṛṣṇa cannot proportionately reciprocate devotional service in the mādhurya-rasa; therefore He always remains a debtor to such devotees.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.93
গোপীর প্রেম-ঋণ-কৃষ্ণের অপরিশোধ্য :— শ্রীমদ্ভাগবত (১০/৩২/২২)
ন পারয়েঽহং নিরবদ্যসংযুজাং
স্বসাধুকৃত্যং বিবুধায়ুষাপি বঃ ।
যা মাভজন্ দুর্জ্জয়-গেহশৃঙ্খলাঃ
সংবৃশ্চ্য তদ্বঃ প্রতিযাতু সাধুনা ॥৯২॥
Translation: “‘When the gopīs were overwhelmed with dissatisfaction due to Lord Kṛṣṇa’s absence from the rāsa-līlā, Kṛṣṇa returned to them and told them, ‘My dear gopīs, our meeting is certainly free of all material contamination. I must admit that in many lives it would be impossible for Me to repay My debt to you because you have cut off the bondage of family life just to search for Me. Consequently I am unable to repay you. Therefore please be satisfied with your honest activities in this regard.’
Jayapatākā Swami: Kṛṣṇa promises He will reciprocate with the devotees in the way they approach Him, but the gopīs in Vṛndāvana approach Kṛṣṇa so selflessly that Krsna declares that He is indebted to them.
Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 8.94
গোপীর মধুর-প্রেমেই কৃষ্ণ-মাধুৰ্য-বিলাস প্রকটিত :—
যদ্যপি সৌন্দৰ্য কৃষ্ণ-মাধুর্য্যের ধুৰ্য্য ।
ব্রজদেবীর সঙ্গে তাঁর বাড়য়ে মাধুৰ্য্য
Translation: “Although Kṛṣṇa’s unparalleled beauty is the topmost sweetness of love of Godhead, His sweetness increases unlimitedly when He is in the company of the gopīs. Consequently, Kṛṣṇa’s exchange of love with the gopīs is the topmost perfection of love of Godhead.
Purport: Kṛṣṇa and His devotees become perfectly intimate in conjugal love of Godhead. In other mellows, the Lord and the devotees do not enjoy transcendental bliss as perfectly. The next verse (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 10.33.6) will illustrate this point.
Jayapatākā Swami: Kṛṣṇa‘s transcendental relationship with the gopīs of Vrndavana is such that that its sweetness is amplified. So this is considered as the highest form of love for Kṛṣṇa.
Thus ends the chapter entitled, Pure Love for Kṛṣṇa is the Perfection of Devotional Service in Practice
Transcribed and Verified by JPS Archives team, 24th January 2021